Food intolerance: Who doesn't need gluten and lactose

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Fatigue, itchy skin, bloating and stomach pain after eating — in the hope that "itself will pass", the unpleasant symptoms can be overlooked over the years. Why the body accepts not all healthy food, deal with doctors: expert of the Center for molecular diagnostics (CMD) of the Central research Institute of epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor Marina Vershinina, candidate of medical Sciences, the doctor-psychotherapist, the author of the methods of correction of eating behavior and weight loss Mikhail Gavrilov and allergist-immunologist clinic "Medicine" Catherine Koroteeva.

What a food intolerance is different from allergies

Symptoms of food allergies and food intolerance are usually very similar — itching of the skin and mucous membranes, rash, abdominal discomfort, disturbances of a chair, — but the mechanisms are different. An allergic reaction to the product is the body's immune response to stimulus; immune system perceives food proteins as foreign and produces defensive antibody immunoglobulin E (IgE). The latter provoke an allergic reaction — most often milk derivatives, eggs, fish and seafood, wheat protein, nuts or soy. As soon as the contact with the allergen ceases, the immune system calms down and the Allergy symptoms go away.

In the case of food intolerance (also called "pseudoallergy") giperreakcia immune system does not occur. It is sometimes said that this condition is associated with production of immunoglobulin type G (IgG), but Marina Vershinina notes that in contrast to IgE, markers of Allergy, antibodies of class G is the result of normal reaction of the immune system, it is an indicator that the body is met with a particular food product and is not going to react to it. The doctor emphasizes that laboratory tests for determination of IgG are expensive, but the detection of such antibodies does not allow to draw conclusions to sensitivity to some products.

If the onset of symptoms allergies might be small enough or even one smell of the allergen, food intolerance is more complicated. In the case of pseudoallergy reaction is frequently delayed (sometimes for several days), and the manifestations blurred. For example, abdominal pain may be accompanied by fatigue or nasal congestion — all this can be easily attributed to fatigue or a cold. Thus, according to the doctor, Mikhail Gavrilov, in adults food intolerance is far more common than food allergies. At risk those who have problems with metabolism or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as smokers and people who move a little.

Where does pseudoallergy

According to Marina Vershinina, certain disorders "food intolerance" do not exist — but there are many diseases and conditions against which you may receive an intolerance of certain substances in food. This can be related to problems in the production of enzymes that digest a particular component (for example, due to lack of lactase enzyme the body can't process lactose, a milk sugar). Reasons can be inflammation of the mucous membrane of the intestine in infections and autoimmune processes, and toxic effects of some products or drugs. Hypersensitivity to chemical food additives — preservatives, dyes, emulsifiers are also not uncommon.

Most often the failure is due to the fact that certain enzymes are produced is not enough. Usually in children it is associated with immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract, and in adults — for example, inflammation of the pancreas. Lactose intolerance usually appears in adults and is considered normal aging process. Whole milk is a staple food at an early age, but with time, the production of the enzyme that breaks down milk sugar, is reduced. According to Mikhail Gavrilov, almost a third of people over twenty-five years, noted deterioration after a glass of whole milk, although in the past such problems they had. Fructose intolerance develops because of violations of suction, thus breaking the so-called vector of fructose, that is, the molecules responsible for the passage of substances through the intestinal wall. Her symptoms — nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhea — like poisoning.

How to treat

According to the allergist-immunologist Catherine Koroteeva, to detect and treat food intolerances — not an easy task: reliable clinical and laboratory criteria pseudoallergy not yet exist. Therefore, when diagnosing, doctors use the process of elimination, first dismissing the Allergy and celiac disease (gluten intolerance based on genetic and autoimmune factors). Confirm lactose intolerance or fructose may help the stool sample, and hydrogen breath test — it reveals violations of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, which often lead to bloating and diarrhea; but in this case the diagnosis is only preliminary.

The doctor will advise you to keep a food diary, noting in it the foods you eat for a day, and well-being after Breakfast, lunch and dinner. The next step is an elimination (based on the exclusion of foods) diet. Specialist removes from the diet one suspicious component; if after six weeks of diet, the condition improves, it means that is forbidden food is the culprit to poor health. Then this product can introduce into the diet, but small amounts and with awareness of the consequences. If improvements or not, so you need to try another option.

What to do to protect themselves

The best prevention of food intolerance experts consider a balanced diet. Vegetables, fruits, nuts, different cereals, and many varieties of fish and meat — the more varied the diet the better. It is also advisable not to get the store ready products and time to solve problems with the stomach and intestines, if they arise.

Who will help popular diet

Gluten-free food is becoming more — and while marketers actively convince their usefulness, doctors are sure that this benefit need not all. Gluten-free diet is prescribed for a relatively rare autoimmune disease, celiac disease, and it is a serious limitation. According to Marina Vershinina, to comply with a gluten-free diet to prevent — all the same what in advance to stand on crutches for fear of breaking a leg. For starters, it is important to confirm the diagnosis (examination involves a biopsy of the small intestine) and to obtain from the attending physician recommendations. Another popular diet — the diet for blood group — and not at all insecure: she has no evidence base, and hence the result may not please.