"Naked parade": As athletes share women and men
Olympics in Pyeongchang will forever be remembered as a shining example of doping scandals. A ban on products that may give athletes an advantage a logical and reasonable but sometimes the effort to make the Game as honest and fair leads to inconsistent results. Still not subsiding controversy surrounding "gender tests" — tests for sex determination, which for many years carried on the Olympic games, to identify whether among athletes men posing as women. Tell how this was done and what resulted.
Sex verification tests — or tests for sex determination was first held in 1936 at the games in Berlin (these Games are also known as Hitler's Olympics). Then inspection of genitalia was subjected to the American runner Helen Stephens. The question actually arose from the fact that judges and other participants of the competition (which she beat) Helen seemed too "masculine", and besides, the results were "suspiciously" high. Female genitalia was found, the question was removed.
However, the topic continued to play up in the press. The hype over the gender issue has led to the fact that in 1966 at the European Championships in athletics were held the first mass sex testing in athletes — the so-called naked parade: all participants were forced to strip completely in front of the judges for inspection of the genital organs. This humiliating procedure caused many disputes and disturbances. At the same time from the sport suddenly is gone by some players — for example, Irina and Tamara Press, who represented the Soviet Union won six gold medals. Of course, the rumors began to creep only more intense.
In 1968 at the summer Olympic games for the first time conducted genetic testing — and a disqualification. The first woman was not allowed to the competition was the Polish athlete ewa Klobukowska she revealed mosaicism (a condition in which cells contain not the same, and different sets of chromosomes, including the XX and XY). In 1991, the previously used test for sex chromatin was replaced by PCR which showed the presence of SRY gene. This gene — based Y-chromosome, and assumed that he is responsible for the development of the body of male type. But then came the trouble: it turned out that some people have so-called syndrome of insensitivity to androgens — with him even in the presence of the Y-chromosome is expressed in female phenotype.
Athlete, not being able to do what you love, suffered from depression and in 2007 he attempted suicide. All attempts to return the medal and to be rehabilitated was rejected, and the petition and complaint rejected[править]
Because of the ambiguity of the results and the high cost of mandatory chromosome tests were abolished in 1999, but the right to question the sex of the left: the international Association of athletic federations (IAAF) at the slightest suspicion could demand a medical examination — including a gynecologist, geneticist, endocrinologist, psychologist and analysis on hormones. If the athlete refused to compete it is not allowed.
Widely known story of the Indian runner Santi soundarajan, which was deprived of a silver medal at the Asian games 2006 and forbidden to participate in the competition, when it "failed" hormonal testing. "My conscience is clear, I didn't do anything wrong", said Santi, staying in shock from what happened. It was suggested that a hormonal imbalance caused by poor nutrition in childhood: the athlete grew up in a poor village in India. Despite the fact that the removal of Santi as a whole has tried to mitigate (e.g., paying a monetary award), she had to return home. Athlete, not being able to do what you love, suffered from depression and in 2007 he attempted suicide. All her attempts to return the medal and to be rehabilitated was rejected, and the petitions and complaints were dismissed. The only thing she is allowed to engage in coaching.
Even more noise was made history, caster Seed, South African female athletes. The exclusivity of its achievements (as well as heated discussion of appearance, where without it) has forced the International Association of athletics federations in 2009 to provoke an investigation. Test results not publicly announced, but rumors have spread immediately. The IAAF, meanwhile, said that the Seed "rare medical condition" and determine whether it gives "unfair advantages". While this was out, the young athlete was faced with a strong pressure.
The results showed that the chromosomal point of view, Semenya is female, but with unusually high levels of testosterone. The press wrote that the Association was required to adjust the level of medication, threatening not to let the competition. Anyway, after some time, the Trip made, and the results were noticeably below — and in the media talking about the fact that the athlete lowers the level of hormones to pursue a career. The matter was vigorously debated and finally publicly and loudly talking about the permissibility of gender tests about what they may be, where the border between "man" and "woman" and what to do intersex people in such a situation.
These troubles have led to the fact that the international Olympic Committee revised gender tests, so that from 2012 began to carry out hormonal researches. Was set the maximum level of androgens that are valid for the female category. On the one hand, in 2015, this policy allowed to participate in the Olympic games of transgender athletes and athletes and intersex people- in any chosen category, regardless of the posted or unposted transition; most importantly, to meet the level of hormones.
On the other hormonal testing was heavily criticized, especially when it became known that some women were forced to sterilization, to reduce the high by nature level of androgens. Athlete Duty Chand filed a suit in the court of arbitration for Sport (CAS): its in 2014 disqualified because of hyperandrogenism, but she stated that she does not want to follow the recommendations and adjust your level of testosterone. "I want to stay who I am, and again to take part in the competition," said Chand.
Hormonal testing was heavily criticized, especially when it became known that some women were forced to sterilization, to reduce the high by nature level of androgens[править]
The court Chand won, and this decision was a turning point: the court reversed the disqualification and ordered by the IAAF to provide scientific evidence that women with higher testosterone have a distinct advantage over the other athletes — or develop other gender tests. In November 2015 the IOC lifted the ban on which has acted what is the maximum level of testosterone, "before the advent of scientific justification". Until now, new conditions of participation did not appear, and the "gender war" subsided.
"I do not understand why the IOC and MAF need such rules," has repeatedly spoken Chand in an interview. Really, why? The use of the tests for confirmation of sex, which were intended ostensibly to protect the rights of athletes, has led to the opposite result: dozens of ruined reputations and athletic careers, humiliation in the press, public debate appearance. And suffering women: there were cases when an athlete at the Olympics were required to test for hormones, because it looks "too feminine". Documented cases when biological men were in the female category, a unit — and most often these people did coming out as transgender or was intersex. The apparent fraud was never.
It raises questions and the CAS decision, no matter how modern and tolerant they are. "Despite the fact that all sporting events are clearly divided into male and female categories, gender is not so binary — said the court in the case of Chand. — However, since there are some categories of men's and women's competitions, the IAAF needs to formulate a basis for the division of athletes into men and women." To recognize that sex and gender are not divided into two, okay. But a complete rejection of the clear generoso division of the competition and the transition to a completely new category (for example, just by body weight) is, apparently, for sports it's too radical.